Russian Pictures, Icons and Russian Works of Art. Click to download Iconography plays a central role in the Orthodox tradition. There are two more names, which can be read as: Theophylaktos and Arsakios. 429, painted in the Hodegon Monastery between 1355 and 1364 (Proxorov 1972). An icon celebrating the veneration of icons, the Triumph of Orthodoxy is the festal icon for the first Sunday of Great Lent. As a courtesy to other visitors, please bring headphones or earbuds to enjoy the mobile tour. The festival was instituted in the 9th century, probably immediately in 843, and then kept in the church calendar thereafter. In the upper register on the left are the Empress Theodora and her infant son the Faithful Emperor Michael III (born 19 January 840) for whom she was the regent in 843. It is not clear if this applies to the icon of Christ or to the saint on the right. Empress Theodora restored their use in 843. This situation would explain another anomaly—that the central icon of Christ between the two figures in the middle of the lower register is supported by the hands of the two saints, while on the right side of the icon is another hand, but it is attached to no figure. 5, 86–91; V. Foundoulaki, The Triumph of Orthodoxy Icon in the British Museum, London PhD thesis, 1999; M. Vassilaki (ed. This saint on the right, paired with Stephanos, is most likely to be St Theodore the Studite (which fits the first letter of the name above him visible in the BM icon Θ.). On the BM icon the letters ME survive and on the Athens copy ΘΟΔΙΟΣ. But even though the icons are highly visible, the Triumph of Orthodoxy does not only mean we can have icons. It shows us the Empress Theodora and that great restoration of 843. The best answer seems to lie in the historical context. On the left is Empress Theodora, mother and regent of the infant Michael III (three years old in 843). He holds a Gospel book in his left hand and a cross in his right hand. Also in this period the hagiographies of several of the iconophile saints that appear in the BM icon were updated and publicised. . In this climate of vigorous debate about Orthodoxy and of nostalgia for the champions against iconoclasm, the production of the BM icon can be understood as a highly theologically resonant image. It would be hard to fit Patriarch Nikephoros as any of the unidentified saints. He also upheld the Orthodox doctrine of the Trinity against the polemics of Islam. Tap Description below for Information about this Icon. cat., The British Museum), London, 1994, no. 78, 154–5 (Annemarie Weyl Carr); B. Pentcheva, Icons and Power: The Mother of God in Byzantium, University Park, Pennsylvania, 2006; D. Kotoula, ‘The British Museum Triumph of Orthodoxy icon’, in A. Louth and A. Cassidy (eds), Byzantine Orthodoxies, Aldershot, 2006, 121–8; C. Barber, Contesting the Logic of Painting. The icon celebrates the defeat in 843 of the iconoclasts, those who thought it was heresy to represent Christ and the saints in images. Treasures of Byzantine Art and Culture from British Collections (exh. Under Empress Theodora. An interconnected world is not as recent as we think. On this Sunday we commemorate the restoration of the use of icons in the Church after the iconoclasm of the Byzantine Empire. The Synodikon of Orthodoxy, the text that was read out on the festival of the Triumph of Orthodoxy, was significantly updated after these councils, which were seen as tantamount to an additional Ecumenical Council. 32, 340 (Robin Cormack); A. Drandaki, ‘“The Restoration of the Icons”: Tradition and renewal in the work of a 16th-century Cretan painter’, Benaki Museum 1 (2001), 59–78 (in Greek with English summary); H. C. Evans (ed. The Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy can be seen today at the British Museumin London, England. The doctrines of Palamas were accepted as Orthodox. Finally on the First Sunday of Great Lent in the year 843, the Holy Icons were restored to the great Church Aghia Sophia in Constantinople and then throughout the Empire. cat., Bernheimer Fine Arts), London, 1987, no. It took a while, but the controversy over images ended in 843 because enough people realized that if they could not kiss icons, then they could not be saved. The BM icon when painted included a number of inscriptions in Greek which recorded the title of the subject and the names of the figures represented. Proxorov, ‘A Codicological Analysis of the Illuminated Akathistos to the Virgin (Moscow, State Historical Museum, Synodal gr. It is believed to be painted by the Evangelist St. Luke in AD 1400, and exhibits the Annual Festival of Orthodoxy, which is celebrated on every Sunday of lent. The icon is in generally good condition, but the inscriptions in red are abraded, so that only a few letters of the title are discernible, essentially IA on the right hand side. At present there are two unidentified on the top register to the right; and in the lower register the blanks are the second and third from the left and the third from the right, leaving five saints unnamed. The key question is why the earliest known icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy should date from so late in the Byzantine period. First (4th c.) and Second (452) Findings of the Precious Head of St. John the Baptist. 52–5; N.P. We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. They hold between them a (circular?) However, the festival was well established by this date, and was not an innovation of this period, and so this suggestion rests on a false premise. ), Mother of God: Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art (exh. We celebrate it on the first Sunday of Lent. The veneration of icons was solemnly proclaimed at the St. Sophia's Cathedral. Tone five. Description Reviews Shipping & Returns. (National Icon Collection 18, British Museum) The Feast of Orthodoxy (also knowns as the Sunday of Orthodoxy or the Triumph of Orthodoxy) is celebrated on the first Sunday of Great Lent (six Sundays before Pascha) in the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church and of the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches. In the register below, from left to right: St Theodosia, holding an icon of Christ (1); St Ioannikios (4); St Stephanos the Younger (5); St Theodore the Studite (6), who between them hold an icon of Christ; St Theodore (7) and St Theophanes (8), known as the Graptoi; St Theophylaktos (10); and St Arsakios (11). The miraculous icon of the Hodegetria is represented here on a decorated red draped stand (the podea), with red curtains (the encheirion or peplos) drawn back to reveal it. In 1370 the feast of the Triumph of Orthodoxy was established in the Church, and some time after that our icon was painted. And even allowing for the possibility of previous (lost) examples, why is the imagery so fresh and powerful at this moment? This is a Custom Icon and each one is made to order. ), Women, Men and Eunuchs. His proposed saints are: Patriarch Nikephoros, Theophanes the Confessor, Michael Synkellos, and Isaiah of Nikomedia. In that year the iconoclastic controversy, which had raged on and off since 726, was finally laid to rest, and icons and their veneration were restored on the first Sunday in Lent. On the right are the Patriarch Methodios and three other iconophiles. And what does it have to do with icons? It would follow that the BM icon is not the first in the series. On the lower register, the rank of saints contains mostly monks, and (from left to right) starts with St Theodosia of Constantinople. The icon is painted in egg tempera with gold leaf on a wood panel primed with gesso over linen. 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He is paired with another saint. On the first Sunday of Great Lent the church commemorates the “Triumph of Orthodoxy” which is also known as the Week of Orthodoxy. The Triumph of Orthodoxy celebrates the triumph over that kind of thinking. There’s a subtext to iconoclasm that we miss because we aren’t ancient Greeks or Romans. Sold at Sotheby’s, London, in 1984. In the centre of the upper register is a representation of the famous large icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria, which was believed to have been painted by the Evangelist St Luke and to have survived in Constantinople at the Hodegon Monastery, where it was displayed in regular processions. However the publication of an icon in Athens (previously in the Velimezis collection but now in the collection of the Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation) which is of the same subject and most likely a direct copy of the BM icon is of some assistance in deciding the names of the figures (Chatzidakis 1998). For more information about the icon, see the Wrestling with Angels webpage or catalog. The large heavy panel is supported by two winged figures with large red hats. … The subject of the icon is the Triumph of Orthodoxy (the restoration of images in Byzantium in 843 after decades of an official ban on icons, the so-called period of iconoclasm from c. 730). Near them are St Casia and a crowd of female solitaries with her, and many other laity, men, women, and children holding crosses and lamps’. What is the "Triumph of Orthodoxy?" The identification of the figures is made more difficult by the loss over time of their personal inscriptions. The icon is painted in egg tempera with gold leaf on a wood panel primed with gesso over linen. It has no artist’s signature and no date, and so the attribution to the period 1350-1400 depends entirely on stylistic comparisons with other Byzantine paintings, and its precise date and place of production is a matter of debate. The texts included acts of the council of 1351, treatises against a number of topical ‘blasphemies’, writings against church union with the West, several polemics against Islam and Judaism. His dates are 759–826. We created Smarthistory to provide students around the world with the highest-quality educational resources for art and cultural heritage—for free. A series of church councils at Constantinople were convened in 1341, 1347 and 1351 to decide these and other issues. But renewed examination suggests a few more letters: …ΕΦΑΝΟ. Sunday of Orthodoxy. However, it is clear from the theme that it was a subject invented in or after the year 843. The Feast is kept in memory of the final defeat of Iconoclasm and the restoration of the icons to the churches. An icon celebrating the veneration of icons, the Triumph of Orthodoxy is the festal icon for the first Sunday of Great Lent. Basic Information: Originated in Istanbul, Turkey in late 1400 AD Commemorates the restoration of the use of religious icons in the Byzantine Empire in 843 AD Stands 39cm high and 31cm long Painted on gold leaf on a wooden panel covered with linen About the Byzantine Empire: The The icon encapsulates the key arguments for the Orthodoxy of the use of icons: it purports to show an authentic image of the Virgin and Christ painted from life and believed to date from the beginning of Christianity, and it demonstrates visually the humanity of Christ after the incarnation, which was the theological justification for imaging Christ in human form. Great Lent. Ever since, all Orthodox have celebrated this day as the Sunday of Orthodoxy – Over the years the feast has come to be titled the Sunday of the Triumph of Orthodoxy. Triumph of Orthodoxy (XVIc) Icon - F299. The veneration of icons has been the practice of the church for almost its entire existence. 267. The subject of the icon is the Triumph of Orthodoxy (the restoration of images in Byzantium in 843 after decades of an official ban on icons, the so-called period of iconoclasm from c. 730). Gender in Byzantium, London, 1997, 24–51; N. Chatzidakis, Icons of the Velimezis Collection, Athens, 1998, no. The Phenomenon of the Orthodox Icon: A Theological Perspective. This feast originated in the 9th. This icon celebrates the.Triumph of... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images The Sunday of Orthodoxy is the first Sunday of Great Lent. Description Artist/Entry Description/Site Painting, Crusader, 13th century Title Icon of the Triumph of the Orthodoxy Creation/Discovery location Constantinople Date c.1400 Period late Byzantine Technique/Material tempera and gold leaf on wooden panel surfaced with gesso and linen Dimensions 1 ft. 3 23/64 in.x 1 ft. 13/64 in.x 1 31/32 in. Monks and clergy came in procession and restored the icons in their rightful place. The inscriptions are fuller on the Athens copy, and originally read: ΘΕΟΔΩΡΑ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΕΙΡΑ and ΜΙΧΑΗΛ ΠΙΣΤΟΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ. The triumph of the holy icons then on this First Sunday of the Great and Holy Lent is not simply a historical victory over the Iconoclasts, or opponents of the icons, but a celebration of the very essence of the Church’s Faith, which is best expressed in our liturgical worship. The back is mostly bare wood, with two horizontal battens. Nevertheless this raises the possibility that the artist was working with another icon in front of him, and has misread the identities. see the way she's holding her hand and she's pointing to her son 203 Union Street She ably governed the empire, including replenishing the treasury and fending off an attempted invasion by the Bulgarians. Sevcenko, ‘Icons in the Liturgy’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 45 (1991), 45–57; D. Buckton (ed. In the course of Church history, almost each Lenten Sunday has obtained a second theme, a historical theme.Originally the Lenten fast was the time for catechumens to prepare for baptismand entry into the Church. Therefore he can be alternatively identified as the famous iconophile saint—St Stephanos the Younger (c. 713–65). This small panel with the Triumph of Orthodoxy is the best-known and most globally exhibited icon in the BM collection. Mar22. He is Methodios (in office 4 March 843 to June 847). The inscriptions are also considerably abraded in this icon too, however. The back is mostly bare wood, with two horizontal battens. The first Sunday of Lent is the Sunday of the Triumph of Orthodoxy. The subject of the icon is the Triumph of Orthodoxy (the restoration of images in Byzantium in 843 after decades of an official ban on icons, the so-called period of iconoclasm from c. 730). The Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos, who presided at these councils, was later forced to abdicate. icon of Christ, and there are a few letters above the icon—perhaps ΠO. The icon is of Christ Emmanuel, an icon which figures in the service of the Feast of Orthodoxy. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art), New York, 2004, no. As Lent is a period of communal fasting which continues for seven weeks, such triumphalism early on is understandable: it helps to … She holds an icon of Christ, as do the two saints in the centre. 156; V. Nunn, ‘The Encheirion as Adjunct to the Icon in the Middle Byzantine Period’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 10 (1986), 73–102; Y. Petsopoulos, East Christian Art (exh. The day was called "Triumph of Orthodoxy." The 14th century was a time of vigorous theological debate, particularly over the ideas and practices of Hesychasm as formulated by Gregory Palamas (and opposed by Barlaam). In ad 730 the Byzantine Emperor Leo III forbade the use of icons within the empire. The first two names can be read as Theodoros and Theophanes, which suggests they can be identified as the Graptoi brothers, notorious as the iconophiles on whose flesh the Emperor Theophilos had verses tattooed as a punishment. ), Byzantium. 313) showing four Church Fathers and four monastic saints has stylistic connections with the BM icon, but it too has no date or provenance. 67, 431–6; A. Eastmond, The Glory of Byzantium and Early Christendom, London and New York, 2013, no. It is the earliest known representation of this subject, and is of the highest quality of craftsmanship, but this does not rule out the possibility that at the time of its production there was already a long tradition of previous representations. chap. cat., Royal Academy of Arts), London, 2008, no. Her name is clear on the BM icon: ΘΕΟΔΟΣΙΑ. It may be suggested that the icon was made in Constantinople shortly after the council of 1351, but until further stylistic parallels are studied, this remains only a possibility. According to iconophile writings, St Theodosia was a nun who in 729–30 tried to prevent the destruction by imperial guards of the icon of Christ which was displayed on the Chalke Gate of the Great Palace. The icon is on a stand, with red curtains, and on each side stand two guardians, wearing red hats and with wings. There are now five further saints to the right to be identified, one of whom stands behind the others with only his face visible. This icon celebrates the Triumph of... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images The Crucifixion of the Lord, an icon by Fr. The faithful physically interact with icons, venerating them, doing prostrations, lighting incense, candles and vigil lamps in front of them. An Endemousa (Regional) Synod was called in Constantinople in 843. An icon celebrating the veneration of icons, the Triumph of Orthodoxy is the festal icon for the first Sunday of Great Lent. with revisions 1996), 64, 399 ); Sotheby’s. As Lent is a period of communal fasting which continues for seven weeks, such triumphalism early on is understandable: it helps to strengthen the faithful for the coming days. Christian worshipers would pray to the figures portrayed in the icons, which acted as mediators to God. The back is mostly bare wood, with two horizontal battens. To the right of Methodios is a bishop, probably Theodoros, also holding a Gospel book. He argued that the festival of the Triumph of Orthodoxy was first instituted in 1370 to promote the memory of the past in response to the advance of the Ottoman Turks and that the icon was painted as part of this political campaign soon after 1370. The next three saints are not named, but the fourth saint from the left is probably to be identified as St Ioannikios (of Mount Olympos). The connection with the councils supports an attribution to Constantinople, and there are some possible stylistic connections with Constantinople too. p: 978.598.5000 The interior of every church is filled with icons, both on the walls and on special stands and panels, including the iconostasis – the panel separating the nave from the sanctuary. For example, with the illuminated manuscript, now in Moscow, of the Akathistos hymn, Moscow Synodal Gr. Neil McGregor (2011) also saw the production of the icon as a response to contemporary events. Icon painted with egg tempera with gold leaf on a wood panel surfaced with gesso and linen. These two iconophile saints are paired in the mosaics at Nea Moni on Chios and elsewhere. The title has a few more letters on the right (…ΔΟΞΙΑ…). Tag Archives: Triumph of Orthodoxy Orthodox Icons. I am not saying that kissing images of the saints is necessary for one's salvation (though it wouldn't hurt). The most famous Byzantine icon shows the Virgin and Child and is supposedly painted from life by St Luke This icon commemorates the Triumph of Orthodoxy, a pivotal moment in Byzantine history. Read about the other Ecumenical Councils: 1. Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy. Behind the patriarch are the Empress Theodora and the Emperor Michael her son, a small boy, both of whom hold icons. This copy dates from around 1500. This restoration was confirmed at the Seventh Ecumenical Council in 787.. Dr. Lana Sloutsky, Curator of Collections & Exhibitions. First Sunday of the Great Lent: The Triumph of Orthodoxy. Theodore Jurewicz, in Christ the Saviour Orthodox Church in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (see p. 22), shows an Orthodox icon of the crucifixion in historic Byzantine style: These paintings exemplify the considerable difference that exists between the way Western Christianity and Orthodoxy view the cross. The problem in the identifications is that Theodoros died during iconoclasm, whereas Theophanes lived after 843 and became the Bishop of Nicaea. Food with Oil “Cyprus” Icon of the Most Holy Theotokos from the village Staromniy, Moscow region (movable holiday on the 1st Sunday of the Great Lent). The subject was later to be represented on both icons and wall paintings in the period after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, and it is described by Dionysios of Fourna in his Painter’s Manual, an 18th-century book which recorded for other painters his expertise about the practicalities of painting icons and the essential instructions for the representation of all the main subjects of icons and church decoration (also known as the Painter’s Guide of Mount Athos, or the Hermeneia). The Triumph of Orthodoxy icon, written by the hand of Vladislav Andrejev, is a “newly revealed” icon (meaning that this is the first Triumph of Orthodoxy icon of this type). In the name … ), and workshop, Miniature of Christ’s Side Wound and Instruments of the Passion from the Prayer Book of Bonne of Luxembourg, Four styles of English medieval architecture at Ely Cathedral, Porta Sant'Alipio Mosaic, Basilica San Marco, Venice, Spanish Gothic cathedrals, an introduction, https://smarthistory.org/icon-with-the-triumph-of-orthodoxy/. Barber (2007) claims there are other saints represented on this icon. The Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy (also known as the Icon of the Sunday of Orthodoxy) is the festal icon for the first Sunday of Great Lent, a celebration that commemorated the end of Byzantine Iconoclasm and restoration of icons to the church in 843 (the eponymous " Triumph of Orthodoxy "), and which remains a church feast in Orthodoxy. It acted as a visual argument for the maintenance of the traditions of the Orthodox Church. Obviously by the time the icon was painted, this story was regarded as true history. Rejoicing today in the triumph of Orthodoxy on this first Sunday of Lent, we joyfully commemorate three events: one event belonging to the past; one event to the present; and one event which still belongs to the future. St Ioannikios and Patriarch Methodios were honoured as ‘true defenders of the Holy Trinity’. This description shows several major deviations from the BM icon, but is clearly a later version of the same idea. The other three are likely candidates for the lost names, but that seems to be all that one can accurately say at this time. Literature: G.M. The representation of an icon within the icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy is a highly sophisticated way of arguing that it must be ‘Orthodox doctrine’ to represent the holy in figurative art because of the historical ‘fact’ that St Luke did just this, with the approval of the Virgin and Child. The subject of the icon is the Triumph of Orthodoxy (the restoration of images in Byzantium in 843 after decades of an official ban on icons, the so-called period of iconoclasm from c.730). Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy (Ananias of Aleppo) (Syrian, 1722) – CF913 ... After Selection – Price will Show with Dimensions below. 1, 8–9; R. Cormack, Icons, London, 2007 (revised in repr. 4, 76–7 (Robin Cormack); R. Cormack and M. Vassilaki (eds), Byzantium 330-1453 (exh. Art and Understanding in Eleventh Century Byzantium, Leiden, 2007, esp. There are, however, only four names written above them. History and Art, Athens, 1990, esp. This fits his dress (with exposed legs) and the few letters above him, one of which seems to be a K. From this point onwards, this entry takes issue with some of the previous readings of the names (including this writer’s own). The festival at which this icon would have been displayed was the Sunday of Orthodoxy, celebrated annually on the first Sunday in Lent to commemorate the restoration of icons. Orthodox religious painting has evolved over the centuries into a unique art – inspired by the Holy Spirit, according to Orthodoxy – … In the Athens copy, the letters at the beginning of his name are legible: ΘΕΟ. It succeeds the ‘seventh Holy Council’ which in 787 officially restored the use of images in the church. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. ), The Hand of Angelos: an Icon Painter in Venetian Crete (exh. Icon with the Triumph of Orthodoxy – Smarthistory Created at the end of the Byzantine Empire, this image looks back to the achievements of an earlier empress. Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy. The inscriptions naming the two monks on the right are lost on both icons. Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy Pippa Couch and Rachel Ropeik provide a description, historical perspective, and analysis of the Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy. Its messages are more likely to be theological than political. In ad 730 the Byzantine Emperor Leo III forbade the use of icons within the empire. Ever since, this Sunday has been commemorated as the "Triumph of Orthodoxy." The counter case is made by Kotoula (2006) that in the Madrid Skylitzes manuscript Theodoros is shown as a bishop, and so there is one possible parallel. In front of him are two deacons holding an icon of Christ and two more holding one of the Virgin, called the Hodegetria, with shoes woven of gold. Unfortunately this lettering in red paint on the gold background is now abraded and several of the names are lost. Behind them are priests with censers and lamps, and the ascetic saints John, Arsakios, and Isaiah with a crowd of other monks. Clinton, MA 01510 In 1370 he commissioned a manuscript (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, grec. The dominant theme of this Sunday since 843 has been that of the victory of the icons. It shows the triumph by recording in two registers the iconophile champions, those who fought on behalf of the holy icons when they were banned in c. 730. 43, 49–50; U. Abel, Ikonen – bilden av det heliga, Hedemora, 1988, 32–3; R. Cormack, ‘The Triumph of Orthodoxy’, National Art Collections Fund Review 1989, London, 1989, 93–4; M. Chatzidakis and D. Sofianos, The Great Meteoron. The subject is, despite this context, the final restoration of icons in 843. The Triumph of Orthodoxy is one of many icons painted during the post iconoclasm period of the Byzantine Empire, or the Eastern half of the Roman Empire. 57, 108–9, 394 (Robin Cormack); N. McGregor, A History of the World in 100 Objects, London, 2011, no. 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